Farm building, any of the structures used in farming operations, which may include buildings to house families and workers, as well as livestock, machinery, and crops.
The basic unit of a commercial agricultural operation, throughout history and worldwide, is the farm. Because farming systems differ widely, there are important variations in the nature and arrangements of farm facilities. The buildings on a farm generally consist of the farm family’s house, the dwellings of any resident hired workers, and the various structures and facilities for farming operations. This article deals with farmhouses and service buildings that can be classified as follows: livestock barns and shelters; machinery- and supply-storage buildings; buildings and facilities for crop storage, including fodder; and special-purpose structures.
The location of the farmstead and also the relative position of its totally different buildings square measure influenced by many factors, external and internal. Among the external factors, principally natural, square measure soil conditions, climate, and access facilities to the most road and to the fields.
Internal factors depend upon the kind of mercantilism appropriate to the farm. Among general principles that have to be taken under consideration square measure the requirement of some partition between the house and repair buildings, minimizing of transportation between buildings, the chance of enlarging buildings, and security against the fireplace. Four general layouts could also be defined: giant crop farms, giant stock farms, farms in underdeveloped areas, and little to medium mixed farms.
LARGE STOCK FARM
Two forms of giant stock farms, in-depth and intensive, could also be distinguished. The in-depth kind is exemplified by the Bos taurus ranchers of u.s. At the intense, there are not any buildings, solely instrumentation. In Australia and New island, dairy farm cows area unit unbroken while not housing. the sole building homes the milking parlor and also the milk space, within the center of the pasture. within the western u. s., the foremost necessary beef ranches have many thousand heads, entirely free on the vary. the sole building is the elevator with the edge and combination machinery. For the animals their area unit solely troughs and fences. Among intensive stock farms area unit the large dairy farm units—with many hundred cows—in u.s., in western Europe (France, northern Italy), and in Japanese Europe and also the former Soviet republics. There area unit 3 major layouts: parallel buildings; monobloc buildings (in the European nation, for example); and circular layout, with the milking parlor within the center (the United States, northern Italy).
The lined feedlots for finished beef, in the U.S. geographical area et al., feed on many hundred to many thousand heads of Bos taurus and area unit usually engineered with a shelter for the animals and with a tower or bunker silos. giant units for hog production ofttimes have several buildings, part to cut back malady risks and part to separate the varied animals—for example, the suckling sows, in-pig sows, finished pigs, and boars. Some systems, however, use just one or 2 forms of buildings. giant poultry units, specialized either for egg or for broiler production, use giant identical buildings, the quantity betting on the unit size.
Farms in underdeveloped areas
In the underdeveloped areas, 2 sorts of buildings square measure found: those of the latifundia, or massive plantation-type farms, and people of the small-owner or tenant farms. In these, buildings square measure usually tiny and scattered, the development of one massive building being too big-ticket.
The small and medium farms that characterize European agriculture and that exist in several alternative components of the globe square measure managed on the standard husbandry and agriculture system. Consequently, this sort of farm commonly has many service buildings: one for machinery, one for fodder and bovine, one for crop rotation another for hogs, and still another for sheep. In mountain areas, however, there oft may be a single building, together with the house. With the rise of the typical size of farms in these areas, there's relative specialization, and also the variety of buildings within the freshly designed farms is decreasing.
These embody homes (farmhouses), placental barns and shelters, buildings for machinery and provides, and crop storage and special-purpose structures.
The basic needs for the farmer’s family are regarding an equivalent as those of the urban family, however, sure options of the house rely upon the farm life pattern. as a result of the farmer typically comes directly from the fields or the service buildings, with bespattered garments and boots, it's necessary to produce a rear entrance with a privy or bathroom and clothes-storage area. For an equivalent reason, several farmers like an eating place on the point of the room or enclosed in it. The house should embody associate workplace and an oversized food-storage place with ample refrigeration, as well as a fridge or cellar in several countries, as most farm families ar giant. There are sometimes 3 or four bedrooms.
Satisfactory modernization of previous farmhouses is troublesome in some cases, however, if the offered floor area is enough and also the main walls sturdy, a renovation will provide sensible results. the price of a brand new house should be proportionate to the farmer’s income; for this reason, farmhouses in underdeveloped regions have less floor area with the main space (kitchen and eating room), 2 or 3 bedrooms, an oversized privy, and a storage place.
Livestock barns and shelters
Barns and shelters tend to be the foremost necessary parts of the eutherian farm. 2 general kinds of animal shelters could also be distinguished: the utile kind, a single-story building with clear-span roof construction, helpful for feed storage and machinery, furthermore as for livestock; and also the specific kind, designed for a selected style of animal.
There area unit 2 major cattle-housing strategies, the stall barn (or post barn) and also the loose-housing system. within the stall barn, every animal is betrothed in a very stall for resting, feeding, milking, and watering. the standard arrange has 2 rows of stalls. In older buildings fodder ANd straw area unit hold on in an overhead loft, however in fashionable layouts adjacent buildings area unit usually used.
In cold and moderate climates the barns would like insulated walls and ceilings, furthermore as ventilation systems, either natural or power-operated. In delicate and hot area Unitas the barns are open on one or 2 sides. The loose-housing system developed within u.s. once war II is currently utilized throughout the globe. Basically, this technique includes a wood- or metal-framed shelter, organized in such how that the animals will move freely within and generally conjointly between the shelter and an outdoor yard. counting on the bedded areas, four sorts may be distinguished: loose housing on permanent litter—for example, straw, corncob, sawdust; loose housing in free stalls or cubicles; loose housing on slatted floors; and lose housing on slanted concrete.
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